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The interpretation was further extended that the EGMB-south represents a part of an exotic terrane, which was transferred to proto-India in the late Paleoproterozoic as part of a linear accretionary orogenic belt that may also have included south-west Baltica and southeastern Laurentia. These early Mesoproterozoic tectonic fabrics and metamorphic assemblages were cut at c. 1480–1450 Ma by newly formed and reactivated crustal-scale shear zones (Swain et … Thermal perturbation on a regional scale might have been induced by asthenospheric upwelling following slab break-off at relatively shallow depth and consequent production of basaltic magma emplaced in the lower crust. Orthopyroxene‐bearing, mafic migmatites at Cone Peak, California: evidence for the formation of migmatitic granulites by anatexis in an open system. The spatial and temporal patterning of the deep crust and implications for the process of melt extraction. In contrast to the earlier belief that the source was from the adjacent Dharwar Craton, it was inferred that Napier Complex was the original source (Henderson, Collins, Payne, Forbes, & Saha, 2014). The Grenvillian Provinces including the EGMB skirting east Antarctica were reworked, truncated and offset by Pan-African mobile belts, there by implying that east Gondwana underwent significant reorganization during the Cambrian, unlike in many models where it was assumed to have stabilized during the late Mesoproterozoic (Fitzsimons, 2000). Melt segregation rates in migmatites: review and critique of common approaches. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Cordierite as a sensor of fluid conditions in high‐grade metamorphism and crustal anatexis. The upper segment of the sequence contains migmatitic gneisses, leucogranite, and high-grade metasedimentaries, while the lower part is composed of quartzite, schists, paragneiss, and granite orthogneiss. ... granulite facies of high-pressure influences during Fluid composition and propagation in the deep crust: Case studies from the Limpopo Complex, South Africa. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Geology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7700 South Africa. Unlike the granulite-facies TTG gneisses, the Zhujiafang supracrustal rocks only underwent lower-amphibolite-facies metamorphism. The contribution of charnockite magmatism to achieve near-ultrahigh temperatures in the Namaqua–Natal Metamorphic Province, South Africa. The Araçuaí Orogen is subdivided by the Abre Campo Shear Zone into two tectonic domains - the internal (eastern) and the external (western) (Figure 1b). However, muscovite is coarse grained and cuts across the schistosity and was possibly formed during the cooling phase. 4.4a). In this paper, we summarize the Proterozoic tectonother- mal evolution of the Broken Hill Block in light of structural, metamorphic and geochronological analysis conducted within a high-temperature shear zone located in the south of the terrane (Forbes et al., 2005, 2007). 28(3), pp. A – type granite this type is formed from per-alkaline to alkaline magma (Al2O3 < Na2O + K2O) which forms Alkali Feldspar Granite from partial melting of continental crust and granulite rocks or fractionation in the crust. 8.3D). Timing and conditions of regional metamorphism and crustal shearing in the granulite facies basement of south Namibia: Implications for the crustal evolution of the Namaqualand metamorphic basement in the Mesoproterozoic. 248-257. Orthopyroxene–sillimanite–quartz assemblages: distribution, petrology, quantitative P–T–X constraints and P–T paths. Another possible aspect in such comparisons is with regard to the source rocks for the sedimentary protoliths of EGMB-south. 4.4. The cordierite‐bearing anatectic rocks of the higher Himalayan crystallines (eastern Nepal): low‐pressure anatexis, melt productivity, melt loss and the preservation of cordierite. Tectonic setting, origin, and obduction of the Oman ophiolite Mike Searle; Mike Searle 1. Seemingly disparate temperatures recorded in coexisting granulite facies lithologies. The eclogite zone in the Dabie Shan Complex is sandwiched between amphibolite facies gneiss slices. Granulite is a high-grade metamorphic rock containing granular minerals, typically red garnet mixed with grains of pyroxene, quartz, and feldspars formed under great heat without melting. A The Yixingzhai granitoid plutons are chemically similar to the Hengshan TTG gneisses, but are only metamorphosed to greenschist to lower-amphibolite facies and are less deformed, locally preserving igneous textures. The Takhsang Formation is composed of garnet–sillimanite–biotite gneiss largely devoid of muscovite (Golani, 1995, p. 96), which, if present, occurs as a second-generation grain. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. Laixi Tong, Zhao Liu, Zheng-Xiang Li, Xiaohan Liu, Xin Zhou, Poly-phase metamorphism of garnet-bearing mafic granulite from the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica: P-T path, U-Pb ages and tectonic implications, Precambrian Research, 10.1016/j.precamres.2017.12.045, (2017). Fig. Kyanite and sillimanite are also present and make the Sure Formation distinct from the Jaishidanda Formation. Prograde and retrograde reactions, garnet zoning patterns, and accessory phase behaviour in SW Finland migmatites, with implications for geochronology. The fundamental change in the Earth’s history at the Archaean–Palaeoproterozoic boundary was linked to the transition from Archaean “microplate tectonics” to Palaeoproterozoic “supercontinent tectonics” (or “micro-ocean tectonics” having in mind the limited size of the predominantly Red Sea-type oceans that originated within a partially disrupted supercontinent) (sections 3.4 and 3.6). Generally, the rocks of the South Delhi Terrane are marked by amphibolite facies metamorphism and multiple stages of folding. Anatexis during High-pressure Crustal Metamorphism: Evidence from In a certain sense, they can be interpreted as the beginning of a new Meso-Neoproterozoic evolutionary cycle. During this model of accretionary orogenesis, the EGMB might be behaving like an advancing orogen at that time due to the closure of ocean basins. Variations in fluid activity across the Etive thermal aureole, Scotland: evidence from cordierite volatile contents. Dehydration melting, fluid buffering and decompressional P–T path in a granulite complex from the Eastern Ghats, India. Richard Palin (2008): P-T-time paths and tectonic correlation in the Karakoram Metamorphic Complex. The sillimanite–granulite facies rocks contain sillimanite–biotite–garnet–plagioclase–K-feldspar–quartz–cordierite–muscovite–hercynite. The rocks were subject to deformation at middle to lower crustal levels under granulite and upper amphibolite facies conditions during the Scourian event between c.2,650 Ma to 2,480 Ma. Considering the worldwide decrease of magmatic activity from c. 2.45 to 2.2 Ga, Condie (1994b) argued that deep-seated heat generation processes in the Earth could not have been significantly lower during that period. Single zircon ages of migmatitic gneisses and granulites in the Obudu Plateau: Timing of granulite-facies metamorphism in southeastern Nigeria. Swapp and Holister (1991) studied the amphibolite and sillimanite–granulite facies rocks of Gansser (1983). Crustal melting and melt extraction, ascent and emplacement in orogens: mechanisms and consequences. time and in different tectonic settings? North of the Qinling Group are early Paleozoic active margin deposits of the Sino-Korean block. Fluid-rock interaction during high-grade metamorphism: Instructive examples from the Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Complex, South Africa. At low temperature, albite-bearing mafic rocks are replaced by assemblages with sodic amphibole (line 4, in Figure 5). Outcrop features of granulite-facies migmatites; Vein-like and patchy charnockite in southern India; Metamorphic history of the Namaqualand granulites. Phase relations and fluid inclusion evidence indicate greatly reduced water activity (aH2O) in the granulite facies (cf. Concentrated aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes, including (Na,K)Cl, would have low aH2O, as would CO2-rich fluids. Granulite facies xenoliths from the Yuhuashan complex, central Jiangxi, South China constraints on Late Palaeozoic orogeny and middle-lower crust components Orthophosphate and biotite chemistry from orthopyroxene-bearing migmatites from California and South India: The role of a fluid-phase in the evolution of granulite-facies migmatites. The final breakup of Columbia at about 1.3–1.2 Ga was immediately followed by the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia along the globally distributed Grenvillian orogens at 1.0 Ga (Dalziel, 1997). Santosh & Kusky 2010; Santosh alet. Also, unlike in the LSL, the compositional zoning in the rim and a homogeneous compositional picture in the core region of garnet, according to Swapp and Hollister (1991), suggest that such P-T conditions were achieved during cooling from a temperature of at least 650°C (probably near 700°C). Granulites and charnockites of the Gruf Complex: Evidence for Permian ultra-high temperature metamorphism in the Central Alps. The Kararan Orogeny is coincident with the Argilke and Chewings events in the southern Arunta Inlier, with the deposition of the Mount Barren Group and the reactivation of the Capricorn Orogen in the West Australian Craton, and with the development of the Calvert and Isa superbasins on the North Australian Craton (Figure 4). Other workers consider the formation of orthopyroxene to be typical of granulite facies conditions, although this occurs at significantly higher temperatures (100–150 ¯C higher) than does formation of K-feldspar + Al-silicate. The northern limit of these occurrences is traditionally marked as Charnockite Line (Fermor, 1936). The processes that control leucosome compositions in metasedimentary granulites: perspectives from the Southern Marginal Zone migmatites, Limpopo Belt, South Africa. A comparison of observed and thermodynamically predicted phase equilibria and mineral compositions in mafic granulites. A. Feenstra, G. Franz, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2015. Granulite facies amphibole (pargasite) in the olivine gabbro is distinguished from the amphibolite facies amphibole of dykes and gneiss by sodium content that reaches 4.2wt%. Contact Facies Series (very low -P) 2. Swapp and Hollister (1991) further maintained that the leucogranites co-occurring at the top levels of were not the source of heat for the high T upper portion of the HHC. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis, Pakistan Himalayas, on the Indus gorge transect: The importance of early events. In other words, the concept implies a continuity of the Archaean Dharwar rocks further south of the defined boundary. Max Wigley (2009): Phase relations of osumilite and reaction processes in granulite facies rocks from Namaqualand, South Africa. Ukwang, E. E. and Ekwueme, B. N. (2009). Charnockites, pyroxene granulites, and garnet-cordierite gneisses at a boundary between Early Svecofennian rocks and Småland-Värmland granitoids, Karlskoga, southern Sweden. Ultra-high temperature overprinting of high pressure pelitic granulites in the Huai'an complex, North China Craton: Evidence from thermodynamic modeling and isotope geochronology. medium-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the southern Nawa Domain (Cutts et al. U–Pb SHRIMP ages and tectonic setting of the Munster Suite of the Margate Terrane of the Natal Metamorphic Belt. In the Curnamona Craton, the shallow-marine, immature clastic sedimentary rocks and bimodal volcanics of the Willyama Supergroup were deposited between ∼1715 and ∼1645 Ma. Crystallization of Heterogeneous Pelitic Migmatites: Insights from Thermodynamic Modelling. The Sure gneiss is reported to be a two-mica granite gneiss, which is locally migmatitic. The boundaries between facies (and corresponding areas on the tempera… Sodium is transferred from feldspar to amphibole and mica (paragonite). The latest, most widespread and intense event at c.1150 Ma gave rise to low-P granulites which record an anticlockwise P-T path and were accompanied by gneissic granite and charnockite. Rocks which contain certain minerals can therefore be linked to certain tectonicsettings, times and places in the geological history of the area. Tectonic setting of the Ottawa River ... granulite‐ and eclogite‐facies rocks in the aMP Belt commonly exhibit evidence for an amphibolite‐facies overprint of variable severity. basins and oassive margins; thick sediments create enough t and p for recrystallization in lower layers, gradient- normal, facies- zeolite (relatively low t and p) ... facies- greenschist, amphibolite, granulite. Insights into the complexity of crustal differentiation: K2O‐poor leucosomes within metasedimentary migmatites from the Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa. Felsic and bimodal volcanics and interlayered metasedimentary rocks of the Myola Volcanics and the Broadview Schist, and the Peake Metamorphics were deposited on the Gawler Craton ∼1790 Ma, contemporaneous with syntectonic granitic rocks of the Lincoln Complex. Silica-undersaturated spinel granulites in the Daqingshan complex of the Khondalite Belt, North China Craton: Petrology and quantitative P–T–X constraints. It was the introduction of plate tectonics in the 1960s that opened the way to envisaging metamorphism of oceanic crust and overlying sediments at sub‐Moho depths as a viable mechanism for the development of eclogitic mineral assemblages. Minor quartzite bands and few-meter-thick layers of amphibolite are reported to occur at different tectonic levels of the Naspe Formation. It is tectonically juxtaposed with the Jaishidanda Formation. Petrology of an intrusion‐related high‐grade migmatite: implications for partial melting of metasedimentary rocks and leucosome‐forming processes. Eriksson, ... O. Catuneanu, in Developments in Precambrian Geology, 2004. Further volcanic rocks and metasedimentary rocks were deposited between ∼1765 and ∼1735 Ma (McGregor Volcanics, Moonabie Formation, and Wallaroo Group). In metapelites, staurolite-bearing assemblages gradually replace chloritoid-bearing assemblages. This means that assemblages of both facies occur in the same metabasalt. Melting of the continental crust during orogenesis: the thermal, rheological, and compositional consequences of melt transport from lower to upper continental crustThis article is one of a selection of papers published in this Special Issue on the the theme This metamorphism preserves important records of the tectonic history of orogenic belts and the formation of cratons. After Veevers, J.J. (2009). This contribution comprises a brief review of recent findings in the Dharwar craton north of the terrain affected by Archaean granulite facies metamorphism. Lithology Tectonic setting Tectonometamorphic history Heat-production rate (μW m-3) Area wtd. Phase equilibria modeling of kyanite-bearing eclogitic metapelites in the NCKFMASHTO system from the Egere terrane (Central Hoggar, South Algeria). The duration of granulite (G) and ultra–high temperature (UHT) conditions in regional metamorphism is critical to arguments regarding the tectonic settings of … The proof of the presence of a single continuous belt of rocks also comes from the occurrences of the trails of the coevally metamorphosed Archaean granite-greenstone belt rocks showing a metamorphic state compatible with the enclosing granulite bodies along with the Peninsular Gneiss, meta-basaltic dykes of different generations, and their granulitic equivalents well within the massifs of Biligirirangan, Coorg, and Nilgiri Hills in the south (Rama Rao, 1940; Janardhan, 1983). On ultrahigh-temperature crustal metamorphism. Archaean granulite facies metamorphism in the extreme south of the craton have been reviewed by Hansen et al (1995), among others. Conditions during the formation of granitic magmas by crustal melting – hot or cold; drenched, damp or dry?. Prograde, Peak and Retrograde Metamorphic Fluids and Associated Metasomatism in Upper Amphibolite to Granulite Facies Transition Zones. A metamorphic facies is a set of mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks formed under similar pressures and temperatures. Large‐scale fluid infiltration, metasomatism and re‐equilibration of Archaean basement granulites during Palaeoproterozoic thrust belt construction, Ungava Orogen, Canada. Tectonic setting of the Balaram-Kui-Surpagla-Kengora granulites of the South Delhi Terrane of the Aravalli Mobile Belt, NW India and its implication on correlation with the East African Orogen in the Gondwana assembly. Metamorphic rock - Metamorphic rock - Pressure-temperature-time paths: Interaction between metamorphic petrologists and geophysicists in the 1980s led to the realization that each metamorphic rock follows its own unique path through pressure- (depth-) temperature space during metamorphism and that these paths bear little or no resemblance to steady-state geotherms. Raman spectroscopic characterization of H2O in CO2-rich fluid inclusions in granulite facies metamorphic rocks. As already discussed, medium-pressure regional metamorphic zones are best developed in Al-rich metapelitic rocks, which may contain either kyanite or sillimanite, or both Al-silicates. 2010). Rb depletion in biotites and whole rocks across an amphibolite to granulite facies transition zone, Tamil Nadu, South India. Veevers (2009) summarized and illustrated the assembly and breakup history of Antarctica and India (Fig. Curiously, granulite facies terrains of Brazil are not cited, possibly due to the paucity of published P-T data on Brazilian granu- lites in international journals. Metamorphism probably took place in the deep parts of a Jurassic–Early Cretaceous accretionary wedge. 20 C) consistent with granulite facies metamorphism occurring contemporaneously with eclogite facies meta-morphism along strike to the northeast. Mid-crustal shear zone development under retrograde conditions: pressure–temperature–fluid constraints from the Kuckaus Mylonite Zone, Namibia. Most metamorphic terranes, especially in the internal parts of continents, are composed of greenschist, amphibolite, and granulite facies rocks, including migmatites at the high metamorphic grades. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The amphibolite to granulite facies rocks overlying the MCT occupies a vast expanse of Bhutan and is named the Thimphu Group/Great Himalayan Zone/HHC/Tibetan Slab (Fig. Harald Fritz, Veronika Tenczer, Christoph Hauzenberger, Eckart Wallbrecher, Sospeter Muhongo Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa, Tectonophysics 477, no.3-4 3-4 (Nov 2009): 160-173. The formation of staurolite and the breakdown of chloritoid are generally considered to reflect the greenschist–amphibolite facies transition in pelitic rocks. The preservation of anhydrous assemblages and the restricted distribution of late hydrous minerals suggest that retrograde reaction between hydrous melt and solids did not occur and that H2O in the melt was released as vapour on crystallization. Facies Series. Palaeoproterozoic tectonic and crust-forming processes were instigated mainly by 2.51–2.44 Ga and 2.0–1.95 Ga mantle plumes of global significance (“superplumes”) (sections 3.2 and 3.3). Accessory Mineral Behaviour in Granulite Migmatites: a Case Study from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, India. Chakrabarti, in Geology of the Himalayan Belt, 2016. Segregation of leucogranite microplutons during syn‐anatectic deformation: an example from the Taylor Valley, Antarctica. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Water budget and partial melting in an Archean crustal column: example from the Dharwar Craton, India. 8.3). Geochemical signatures of mid-crustal melting processes and heat production in a hot orogen: The Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India. Most ruby deposits formed during Ediacaran-Cambrian (ca. In the Gawler Craton, Archaean gneissic rocks of the Sleaford and Mulgathing complexes were deformed, metamorphosed to, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Most metamorphic terranes, especially in the internal parts of continents, are composed of greenschist, amphibolite, and. The flow of dense CO2-rich fluid would be limited by the inability of CO2 to wet grain boundaries effectively, unlike chlorine-rich brines (Watson and Brenan, 1987). Grujic et al. The model of eastern India forming a part of the linear accretionary system encompassing south-eastern Laurentia and Baltica accounts for the magmatism and metamorphism recorded in the EGMB-south (Ongole Domain) between 1.72 and 1.6 Ga leading up to continent–continent collision at c. 1.6 Ga. Accretionary orogenesis might have been possibly terminated by the collision that developed between EGMB-central and Rayner Complex at c. 1 Ga (Mezger & Cosca, 1999). Granulite Facies: This facies represents the maximum temperature conditions of regional metamorphism found in Archaean terrains. Ma c dykes as monitors of hp granulite facies metamorphism in the Grenville front tectonic zone (western Quebec) Jacques Martignole, Jean-Emmanuel Martelat To cite this version: Jacques Martignole, Jean-Emmanuel Martelat. what is the tectonic setting of burial metamorphism? Lamb and Valley, 1984; Crawford and Hollister, 1986; B. R. Frost and C. D. Frost, 1987; Newton, 1995; Aranovich and Newton, 1996, 1997, 1998, and numerous references cited therein). Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior. 2012; and references therein). timing of the peak and retrograde metamorphism for the granulites, the tectonic position of the HP granulite terrane and tectonic evolution in the eastern Himalayan syntaxis in an attempt to resolve this controversy. Partial crustal melting beneath the Betic Cordillera (SE Spain): The case study of Mar Menor volcanic suite. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Deep infiltration of surface water during deformation? Evidence from a low- δ18O shear zone at Koegel Fontein, Namaqualand, South Africa. Charnockitization of feldspar-free orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-phlogopite metaultramafite in the lapland granulite belt, southern Kola Peninsula: Compositional trends of rocks and minerals, P-T parameters, and fluid regime. Farther north is a granulite facies gneiss complex, the Qinling Group, which has ultramafic slivers and includes the remnants of an island arc with two bounding suture zones. Origin, age, and significance of deep‐seated granulite‐facies migmatites in the Barrow zones of Scotland, Cairn Leuchan, Glen Muick area. Mafics are subordinate in the rock, and muscovite is conspicuous by its presence in the Sure gneiss. Precambrian Research, Elsevier, 2005, 138, pp.183-207. An overview of metamorphism in relation to tectonic regimes: The above-mentioned features indicate that the EGMB-south may represent an exotic terrane accreted to the Indian craton at c. 1.6 Ga, as a fragment of the Napier Complex of Antarctica and simultaneously connected to parts of Proterozoic Australia. In typical low-temperature eclogite, omphacite and garnet often coexist with glaucophane and clinozoisite over a fairly wide range of conditions. Strain distribution within a km-scale, mid-crustal shear zone: The Kuckaus Mylonite Zone, Namibia. The granulite facies is determined by the lower temperature boundary of 700 +/− 50 °C and the pressure range of 2–15 kb. The ages of granulite facies metamorphism in the southern part of the Dharwar Protocontinent range between 2500 ± 50 and 2540 ± 17 Ma (Hansen et al., 1997). Swapp and Hollister (1991) reported the mineral assemblage in the LSL formed at 480–500°C and 7 kb, predating a penetrative fabric related to an event of deformation. Experimental Study of the Melting Reaction and Genetic Mechanism of Mineral Phase Transformation in Granulite Facies Metamorphism. Metasomatism and the Chemical Transformation of Rock. In part this mélange is probably coeval with the Haast Schist mineral growth, but it formed in the shallower parts of the accretionary wedge. This hypothesis is supported by the similarities in U–Pb and Hf data between the protoliths of EGMB-south and the metasedimentary protoliths from the North Australian Craton, implying that the source could be the Antarctic for both the regions. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Rondebosch, 7700 South Africa. The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure (See diagram in Figure 1). In mafic rocks, the greenschist–amphibolite facies transition is designated by the appearance of hornblende and Ca-rich plagioclase and the disappearance of actinolite and Na-rich plagioclase. Geologic setting 2.1 Regional geology The eastern Himalayan syntaxis (EHS) (Fig.1) is the eastern termination of the Metamorphic petrologists studying contact metamorphism early in the 20th century introduced the idea of metamorphic facies (part of a rock or group of rocks that differs from the whole formation) to correlate metamorphic events. 6.12) in the following stages: (1) 1.7–1.5 Ga: Archean cratons (Dharwar, Bastar, and Napier) became sutured by fringing orogens (Karimnagar-Bhopalpatnam, CITZ, EGMB, Kemp Land), followed by narrow divergence of the Napier Craton from the Indian composite, (2) 1.3–0.9 Ga: initial 1.3 Ga convergence of India and Antarctica proceeding to final 1.0–0.9 Ga collision during the assembly of Rodinia. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, vol. Anatectic melt volumes in the thermal aureole of the Etive Complex, Scotland: the roles of fluid‐present and fluid‐absent melting. Also, they suggest that individual segregations and bodies of partially melted rock acted as sinks for soluble volatiles. The original eclogite-facies mineral assemblage in the mafic rocks has been strongly overprinted by granulite facies metamorphism at 750 C and 0.7–0.8 GPa. (2002) considered the Great Himalayan Sequence (GHS) as a core crustal channel of low-viscosity layer of 10–15 km thickness below the Tibetan plateau and extending for over 200 km. Ma c dykes as monitors of hp granulite facies metamorphism in the Grenville front tectonic zone (western Quebec). Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. Harley, S.L. Metamorphism and Plate Tectonics At present, the geothermal gradients observed are strongly affected by plate tectonics. The assemblage is typical of what is formed in conditions corresponding to an area on the two dimensional graph of temperature vs. pressure (See diagram in Figure 1). Albite = Jadeite + Qtz ( At 200.c/ 7.5 k-bar & 300.c/ 9.5 k-bar ) Calcite = Aragonite (Caco 3 Regionally extensive metamorphic overprints include Devonian and Cretaceous polymetamorphic amphibolite–granulite facies gneisses (formed from Buller, Takaka, Median, and Karamea–Paparoa protoliths). Golani (1995) divided the HHC or the Thimphu Group into three formations: Sure, Naspe, and Takhsang Formation. On the other hand, the style of crustal evolution during the Palaeoproterozoic differs significantly not only from that in the Archaean, but also from that in the Phanerozoic. Some Remarks on Melting and Extreme Metamorphism of Crustal Rocks. Ukwang, E. E. and Ekwueme, B. N. (2009). In mafic rocks, the presence of orthopyroxene, which forms at the expense of hornblende and/or biotite, is considered indicative of granulite facies conditions. Granulite facies. Decompression mineral microtextures in granulites of the Irkut block (Sharyzhalgai uplift of the Siberian Platform). A sequence of partial melting reactions at Mt Stafford, central Australia. When water activity is low, pervasive partial (dry) melting will occur at much higher temperatures and hydrous minerals (muscovite, biotite, and amphibole) may decompose to anhydrous ones by local dehydration melting. Anatectic migmatites in medium‐ to low‐pressure granulite facies metasediments exposed in the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, contain leucosomes with abundant quartz and plagioclase and minor interstitial K‐feldspar, and assemblages of garnet–cordierite–spinel–ilmenite–sillimanite. Kyanite occurs in muscovite-rich parts of the schists. Carbonation of Cl‐rich scapolite boudins in Skallen, East Antarctica: evidence for changing fluid condition in the continental crust. In several outcrops especially in the northern part, south of the east–west trending ‘isograd line’, the charnockite occurs either in the form of small lenses or as diffused stains of charnockitic mass described as ‘patchy charnockite’ within the intensely deformed tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses (Fig. 4.3), banded iron formation, calc-silicate rocks, quartzites, and amphibolites in the southern part of the Dharwar Protocontinent. They may represent a continuation of the Calvert and Isa superbasins that has subsequently been displaced dextrally during the Mesoproterozoic (Figure 3).

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