We first outline the history and context of TA, and identify key issues that need to be considered when conducting TA. Useful papers on (reflexive) thematic analysis by Thematic analysis Victoria Clarke Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK Correspondence email@example.com & Virginia Braun School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand The approach to TA that we developed involves a six-phase process for doing analysis. Easily import data from text documents, interview transcripts, focus groups, online surveys, web pages, images, audio and video files, spreadsheets, bibliographic data, YouTube data, and even tweets. Thematic analysis It does not measure (inter)reliability. A paper isn’t the final answer to a question. Written with the help of Samantha Finnigan! Qualitative Research in … To cite: Brulé, E., Finnigan, S. 2020. The example in this article is a simplified version of thematic analysis designed to help understand how the process works. 1544: 2015: What can “thematic analysis” offer health and wellbeing researchers? We have written extensively about our approach since then, and our thinking has developed in various ways, so do check out some of our more recent writing. We thought it would be helpful to summarize their recent writings on the methods, in hope it would be helpful to researchers new to thematic analysis as we were. Privacy Themes are conceptualized based on the data, based on the research question — which may evolve and lead to start a new analysis process. This would be a deductive approach, informed by previous research about women having negative experiences of public spaces. Interaction analysis focuses on how participants develop knowledge or act using both social and material features of their environment — multimodal analysis emphasizes the importance of considering all different aspects and modes of communication (visual, embodied, speech…). The six steps prescribed by Braun and Clarke (2006) to carry out a thematic analysis are guidelines and should not be used as prescriptive, linear, and inflexible rules when analysing data. I have written chapters / journal papers about insider/outsider research and story completion tasks. It is one of a cluster of methods that focus on identifying patterned meaning across a dataset. We illustrate the process using a worked example based on (with permission) a short extract from a focus group interview, conducted with undergraduate students. TA is best thought of as an umbrella term for a set of approaches for analysing qualitative data that share a focus on identifying themes (patterns of meaning) in qualitative data. We've developed this site to provide a key resource for people are interested in learning about, teaching about, and/or doing, TA – especially the approach we’ve developed: reflexive thematic analysis. However, analysis should be considered recursive – in other words moving back and forth between each phase. Topic summary themes cluster around experiences of X, benefits of Y, barriers to Z, and so on. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. Reflexive thematic analysis is not theory-agnostic. B&C suggest deductive and latent approaches often are tied to a constructionist approach (source). The theoretical approach of the analysis was taken from Braun and Clarke and inspired by their ‘six-phase guide’. A challenge in keeping up with evolving uses of thematic analysis is that it was designed to be versatile, to adapt to different theoretical and epistemological frameworks, and adapt to many research questions. What can "thematic analysis" offer health and wellbeing researchers? Although these phases are sequential, and each builds on the previous, analysis is typically a recursive process, with movement back and forth between different phases. This chapter introduces thematic analysis (TA), a method that has become a widely-used tool for analysing qualitative data, both in psychology and beyond. It is concerned with the identification and analysis of patterns of meaning (themes) and constitutes a widely applicable, cost-effective and flexible tool for exploratory research. What is Braun and Clarke’s Reflexive Thematic Analysis and when to use it? The method has been widely used across the social, behavioural and more applied (clinical, health, education, etc.) They have in face expressed frustrations regarding how their paper is interpreted and used. In 2015 at the very beginning of my PhD, my advisor gave me a simple yet essential advice for academic writing: look at papers similar to what you want to achieve. See also Grounded Theory approaches below. Disclaimer The widely-used version of TA we outline in this chapter is fairly unique in the canon of qualitative analytic approaches in that it just offers the researcher analytic tools to make sense of data. In reality, the separation isn’t always that rigid. Site map Logistic regression was performed to detect predictors of outcome variables, such as not smoking at follow-up. Gareth Terry Nikki Hayfield Victoria Clarke Virginia Braun. Grounded theory, as the name suggests, emphasizing the development of an explanatory model — and the themes are developed based on mapping of relations between the codes, testing alternative explanations or outliers. There’s a topic in the data, and the theme becomes everything participants said about it. The coding process inherits from the approach. This six phase cyclical process involves going back and forth between phases of data analysis as needed until you are satisfied with the final themes. That’s not how we conceptualise themes, but we see that type of theme so much, especially in applied research. The conceptual framework of the thematic analysis for my interviews was mainly built upon the theoretical positions of Braun and Clarke (2006). These guidelines expand and clarify the points we initially made in our 15 point checklist for quality (reflexive) TA, and are useful beyond the editing/reviewing context. Accessibility Braun and Clarke identify three main approaches: a coding reliability approach, a codebook approach, and their reflexive approach. The third step was to search for themes, and an initial thematic map (Braun and Clarke 2006) was created showing eight main themes: positive aspects, negative aspects, risk, vulnerability, sexuality, identity, barriers/source of information and support. During CHI reviewing this year, Samantha and I noticed many references to thematic analysis used language and concepts Braun and Clarke have often disavowed. Although the title of this paper suggests TA is for, or about, psychology, that’s not the case! Before we continue, let’s just note this article will not get into the matter of Grounded Theory and how to do it. 2014 Oct 16;9:26152. doi: 10.3402/qhw.v9.26152. Qualitative Analysis: An Introduction Virginia Braun & Victoria Clarke (2006): Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:2, 77-101 Many ways to analyze your data Content analysis Narrative analysis Conversation analysis Discourse analysis Interpretative phenomenological analysis Grounded theory Thematic analysis That said, an inductive research about representations about mobility technology could reveal a pattern of gendered experiences, with women having more negative experiences than men. Revised on August 14, 2020. Themes are hypothesis that are developed using, or checked against, the data. Feedback on this page, Māori and Pacific Psychology Research Group, The New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study, The Māori Identity and Financial Attitudes Study, Different orientations in thematic analysis, Phases in doing reflexive thematic analysis, Evaluating and reviewing (reflexive) thematic analysis research | a checklist for editors and reviewers, Answers to frequently asked questions about thematic analysis (April 2019), Reading list and resources for thematic analysis, Guidelines for reviewers and editors evaluating thematic analysis manuscripts (April 2019). The course will introduce the principles and practice of reflexive thematic analysis (TA), as described by Virginia Braun, Victoria Clarke, and their colleagues. These phases should be considered to be undertaken sequentially with each phase building on the one before. Reflexive thematic analysis starts with research questions or thematic and an approach to investigate that topic. Teaching thematic analysis: Overcoming challenges and developing strategies for effective learning. The final story relates to the research question: maybe the overall theme for the paper is the community’s role in individual’s perceptions and choices of wearable health technologies. The result of the analysis is a theme explaining people’s experiences, perceptions, views or representations of a given topic. What counts as quality practice in (reflexive) thematic analysis?, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 10.1080/14780887.2020.1769238, (1-25), (2020). | Braun & Clarke 2006 - Using Thematic Analysis - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. What’s the difference between reflexive thematic analysis (e.g., ‘Braun & Clarke’) and other approaches? Reflexive thematic analysis is an approach to analysing qualitative … V Clarke, V Braun, N Hayfield. Initial themes might be mapped and linked to tell a story about the data, what Braun and Clarke call the central meaning-based concept, the story about the data. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis. We've cureated an extensive reading list of resources organised into sections, to help guide you through the diversity of approaches and practices around thematic analysis. We initially outlined our approach in a 2006 paper, Using thematic analysis in psychology. It does not pretend to be neutral: all analysis is influenced by the researcher or researchers. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. Use MAXQDA to manage your entire research project. Briefly, thematic analysis (TA) is a popular method for analysing qualitative data in many disciplines and fields, and can be applied in lots of different ways, to lots of different datasets, to address lots of different research questions! Additional Information : This is an electronic version of an article published in "Braun, Virginia and Clarke, Victoria (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. We’ve also kept up with discussions on thematic analysis in psychology and social sciences. It can also be used across datasets as pertinent for analysis across different sets of data (source). Let’s say you’re studying women’s negative perceptions of technology for mobility. An inductive way – coding and theme development are directed by the content of the data; A deductive way – coding and theme development are directed by existing concepts or ideas; A semantic way – coding and theme development reflect the explicit content of the data; A latent way – coding and theme development report concepts and assumptions underpinning the data; A (critical) realist or essentialist way – focuses on reporting an assumed reality evident in the data; A constructionist way – focuses on looking at how a certain reality is created by the data. Braun V, Clarke V. Thematic Analysis You can report the obvious or semantic meanings in the data, or you can interrogate the latent meanings, Linked to the fact that it is just a method, one of the the assumptions and ideas that lie behind what is main reasons TA is so flexible is that it can be con-explicitly stated (see Braun & Clarke, 2006). " It can be done at a semantic or latent level. New to qualitative methods, I analyzed a sample of qualitative papers published at CHI that year. Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2020). This is closer to quantitative approaches, in that it attempts to eliminate researchers’ biases and emphasizes replicability as a main indicator of quality. Many thanks to Ignacio Avellino and Tom Giraud for their comments and edits. You can download a PDF of these guidelines – and we encourage you to share with editors, reviewers, and others who might find them useful. A common pitfall in (reflexive TA) theme development is identifying a feature of the data, rather than meaning-based patterns. We (Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke) feature the resources we've developed (often with Nikki Hayfield and Gareth Terry), but the content goes way beyond those too. https://sociodesign.hypotheses.org/555, both researchers and reviewers on their website, Braun and Clarke identify three main approaches, General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data. Thematic Analysis (TA) is an accessible, flexible, and increasingly popular method of qualitative data analysis. The approach to TA that Braun & Clarke have developed  involves a six-phase process for doing analysis. From our perspective, the use of a structured codebook, determining themes in advance of analysis or following only data familiarization (using themes as analytic inputs) and conceptualizing themes as domain summaries, delimits the depth of engagement and flexibility central to qualitative research practice. We've developed this site to provide a key resource for people are interested in learning about, teaching about, and/or doing, TA – especially the approach we’ve developed: reflexive thematic analysis. Preliminary "start" codes and detailed notes. The former could be done to develop guidelines for designers and policy makers, while the latter could be useful for writing participatively a position paper challenging current design or methodological approaches to this topic. Thematic analysis: A practical guide. They’ve also vigorously opposed that ‘themes emerge from the data’. Here’s a summary of Braun and Clarke’s concerns regarding uses of their approach to TA and how it applies to HCI research. As junior researchers, we found applying thematic analysis both easy (a way to annotate data) and difficult (there are theoretical and methodological ramifications we don’t have a clear grasp on). There are different ways TA can be approached – within our reflexive approach all variations are possible: More inductive, semantic and (critical) realist approaches tend to cluster together; ditto more deductive, latent and constructionist ones. What can "thematic analysis" offer health and wellbeing researchers? We distinguish between three main types of TA – our reflexive approach, coding reliability TA and codebook approaches, which include methods like template In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. Braun and Clarke (2006) state that thematic analysis is a foundational method of analysis that needed to be defined and described to solidify its place in qualitative research. Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. Thematic analysis is used in many different research fields, but the steps are always the same, and here we build our detailed description of the steps on a famous article, by qualitative researchers in psychology Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke, called “Using thematic analysis in psychology”. What can "thematic analysis" offer health and wellbeing researchers? Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. Anything else to suggest? The data analysis plan followed Braun and Clarke's six-step thematic analysis guide to classify, analyze, and report the themes that emerged from the data collected. This means it can be used within different frameworks, to answer quite different types of research question. Reflexive thematic analysis is an approach to analysing qualitative data to answer broad or narrow research questions about people’s experiences, views and perceptions, and representations of a given phenomena. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101. 2016;19(6):739–43. In terms of question or thematic, reflexive TA can be used to “describe the ‘lived experiences’ of particular social groups” or “examine the ‘factors’ that influence, underpin, or contextualize particular processes or phenomena” (source). Using thematic analysis in psychology Virginia Braun 1 and Victoria Clarke 2 1 University of Auckland and 2 University of the West of England Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. Finally, Thomas’ General Inductive Approach for Analyzing Qualitative Evaluation Data is also sometimes used. pp. Phase 1: Becoming familiar with the data. Learning to do it provides the qualitative researcher with a foundation in the basic skills needed to engage with other approaches to qualitative data analysis. Braun and Clarke propose resources for both researchers and reviewers on their website. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101. The approach to TA that Braun & Clarke have developed  involves a six-phase process for doing analysis. However, analysis should be considered recursive – in other words moving back and forth between each phase. Unfortunately, there are no magic formulas for determining sample size in TA research! Braun and Clarke point to Boyatzis (1998) as a good example of this approach. We have developed a widely-cited approach to TA that is theoretically flexible, characterised by its foregrounding of researcher subjectivity. There are so many publications on TA these days! Deductive/Inductive: codes would be informed by the hypothesis of the researchers and the theoretical framework. The different versions of TA tend to share some degree of theoretical flexibility, but can differ enormously in terms of both underlying philosophy and procedures for producing themes. Thematic analysis is a widely used method of analysis in qualitative research. In 2006 Braun and Clarke published an article that described to novice researchers how to use thematic analysis in a step-by-step manner. A to Z Directory Qualitative Research in Psyc hology, 3 (2). We distinguish between three main types of TA – our reflexive approach, coding reliability TA and codebook approaches, which include methods like template analysis and framework analysis. Themes express the meanings and representations participants hold, as interpreted by the researcher who is “a storyteller [..] interpreting data through the lens of their own cultural membership and social positionings, their theoretical assumptions and ideological commitments, as well as their scholarly knowledge.” Braun and Clarke suggest it is well indicated for work with a “social justice motivation–be it ‘giving voice’ to a socially marginalized group, or a group rarely allowed to speak or be heard in a particular context, or a more radical agenda of social critique or change.” Braun and Clarke also describe them as abstract (source). The psychologist 26 (2), 2013. For some, we provide a succinct summary of what they offer. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. Thematic analysis is used in many different research fields, but the steps are always the same, and here we build our detailed description of the steps on a famous article, by qualitative researchers in psychology Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke, called “Using thematic analysis in psychology”. So for instance in HCI, reflexive thematic analysis could be applied to understand how a marginalised population perceive wearable health technologies and how this may reflect larger health inequalities, but not to simply summarize what they said about a prototype of a wearable health technology (e.g., that it was easy to use and how they would use it). In our reflexive TA approach, you need to think about which approaches suit your project, and actively decide on the ‘version’ of reflexive TA you do. In reflexive thematic analysis, more often only an excerpt of the coding and the description of the coding process provided (source). For instance, related to health technology, an initial theme would be community-specific forms of humor to talk about inequalities and health technologies, but not that people used humor to talk about the topic during the interview, which is a pattern in the data.
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